Physical Layer

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The Physical Layer is the first and lowest layer in the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. The implementation of this layer is often termed PHY.

The Physical Layer consists of the basic hardware transmission technologies of a network. It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.

The Physical Layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium. The Physical Layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the modulation scheme to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified here.

Within the semantics of the OSI network architecture, the Physical Layer translates logical communications requests from the Data Link Layer into hardware-specific operations to affect transmission or reception of electronic signals.


Physical signaling sublayer

In a local area network (LAN) or a metropolitan area network (MAN) using open systems interconnection (OSI) architecture, the physical signaling sublayer is the portion of the Physical Layer that:

List of services

The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are:

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