Pistachio

related topics
{food, make, wine}
{specie, animal, plant}
{island, water, area}
{disease, patient, cell}
{acid, form, water}
{household, population, female}

The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae) is a small tree native to some regions of Syria, Iran, Turkey, Greece, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, and possibly Afghanistan (especially in the provinces of Samangan and Badghis), that produces an important culinary nut. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These species can be distinguished from P. vera by their geographic distributions (in the wild) and their nuts. Their nuts are much smaller, have a strong flavor of turpentine, and have a shell that is not hard. The word pistachio is a loanword from Persian word پسته Peste via Latin.

Contents

History

The modern pistachio nut P. vera was first cultivated in Western Asia, where it has long been an important crop in cooler parts of Iran. It appears in Dioscurides as pistakia πιστάκια, recognizable as P. vera by its comparison to pine nuts.[1] Its cultivation spread into the Mediterranean world by way of Syria: Pliny in his Natural History asserts that pistacia, "well known among us", was one of the trees unique to Syria, and in another place, that the nut was introduced into Italy by the Roman consul in Syria, Lucius Vitellius the Elder (consul in Syria in 35CE) and into Hispania at the same time by Flaccus Pompeius.[2] The early 6th-century manuscript De observatione ciborum (On the observance of foods) by Anthimus implies that pistacia remained well known in Europe in Late Antiquity.

More recently, pistachio has been cultivated commercially in the English speaking world, in Australia, New Mexico,[3] and in California where it was introduced in 1854 as a garden tree.[4] David Fairchild of the United States Department of Agriculture introduced hardier cultivars collected in China to California in 1904 and 1905, but it was not promoted as a commercial crop until 1929.[3][5] Walter T. Swingle's pistachios from Syria had already fruited well at Niles by 1917.[6]

Full article ▸

related documents
Bock
Sesame
Bean
Cannabis foods
Watermelon
Gin
Asparagus
Ceviche
Greek cuisine
Rioja (wine)
Quinoa
Sago
Jelly Belly
Miso soup
Marmite
Smoking (cooking)
Mastic
Haggis
Bacon
Fish sauce
Low-alcohol beer
Merlot
Sweet corn
Kefir
Pineapple
Chestnut
Dim sum
Red bean soup
Draught beer
Salad