Plastic surgery

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Plastic Surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. While famous for aesthetic surgery, plastic surgery also includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. The word "plastic" derives from the Greek plastikos (πλαστικός) meaning to mold or to shape, thus plastic surgery means "molding or shaping surgery" – its use here has no connection with plastics in the sense of synthetic polymer material.



Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC.[2] Sushruta, the father of Indian surgery[3], made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC.[3] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak originally in Sanskrit were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD.[4] The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries.[4] In Italy the Branca family[5] of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.[4]

British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by native methods.[6] Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a Kumhar vaidya were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[6] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[6] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the Western world by 1815.[7] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western world.[7]

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