Pledge of Allegiance

related topics
{law, state, case}
{god, call, give}
{black, white, people}
{government, party, election}
{day, year, event}
{church, century, christian}
{school, student, university}
{son, year, death}
{album, band, music}
{language, word, form}
{work, book, publish}
{theory, work, human}
{woman, child, man}

The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States is an oath of loyalty to the national flag and the republic of the United States of America, originally composed by Francis Bellamy in 1892. The Pledge has been modified four times since then, with the most recent change adding the words "under God" in 1954. Congressional sessions open with the swearing of the Pledge, as do government meetings at local levels, meetings held by the Knights of Columbus, Royal Rangers, Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts of the USA, Fraternal Order of Eagles, Freemasons, Toastmasters International and their concordant bodies, other organizations, and many sporting events.

The current version of the Pledge of Allegiance reads:[1]

According to the United States Flag Code, the Pledge "should be rendered by standing at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men should remove any non-religious headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag, and render the military salute".[1]



The Pledge of Allegiance was written in 1892 by Francis Bellamy (1855–1931), a Baptist minister, a Christian socialist, and the cousin of socialist utopian novelist Edward Bellamy (1850–1898). The original "Pledge of Allegiance" was published in the September 8 issue of the popular children's magazine The Youth's Companion as part of the National Public-School Celebration of Columbus Day, a celebration of the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas. The event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham, a marketer for the magazine, in a campaign to sell flags to public schools and magazines to students,[2][3] while instilling the idea of American nationalism in them.[4][5]

Full article ▸

related documents
Byron White
Star Chamber
Riot Act
Asylum and Immigration Tribunal
Criminal procedure
Procedural law
United States court of appeals
Civil liberties
Crime against humanity
McCulloch v. Maryland
Article Six of the United States Constitution
Congressional power of enforcement
False Claims Act
Wikipedia:No personal attacks
McDonald's Restaurants v Morris & Steel
Prosecutor's fallacy
Section Thirty-three of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Practice of law
J. Edgar Hoover
Sara Jane Olson
Gideon v. Wainwright
Electric chair