Plural

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In linguistics, plurality or [a] plural is a concept of quantity (i.e., grammatical number) representing a value of more-than-one. Typically applied to nouns, a plural word or marker (morpheme) is used distinguish a value other than the default quantity of a noun, which is typically one. Plurality is a linguistic universal, represented variously among the languages as a separate word (free morpheme), an affix (bound morpheme), or by other morphological indications such as stress or implicit markers/context.

In the English language, singular and plural are the only usual grammatical numbers, with minor dual exceptions ("both", "twice", "either", etc.)

A plural is commonly abbreviated pl. in dictionaries. In part-of-speech tagging it has other notation which distinguish different types of plurals based on the grammatical and semantic context.

Contents

English

In English, the plural is usually formed with the addition of -s (e.g., one cat, two cats; one chair, two chairs) or -es (e.g., one bush, two bushes; one itch, two itches). Generally, -s is added to all nouns that end in a voiceless consonant, vowels, or voiced non-sibilants, whereas -es is added for nouns ending in a sibilant sound. Nouns that end in e are a noted exception; though e may form a sibilant sound, -s is used (e.g.,. one tree, two trees; one bee, two bees).

Some plural forms require more noticeable changes in word structure. Most words ending in y are pluralised with ies (e.g., one lady, two ladies; one cherry, two cherries). Some words ending in f are pluralised with -ves (e.g., one leaf; two leaves; exception: one roof; two roofs). Words ending in x are often pluralised with -ces (e.g., one matrix, two matrices; one index, two indices). Words ending in us often replace the us with -i (e.g., one cactus, two cacti; one fungus, two fungi). A subset of words ending in um or on are pluralised by replacing with -a (e.g., one forum, two fora; one criterion, two criteria). See English plural#Irregular plurals for more examples of irregular pluralisation.

It is a word where is a School is a Plural Noun\ A small class of words have identical singular and plural forms: e.g., one sheep, two sheep; one aircraft, two aircraft.

Other languages

In many languages, there is also a dual number (used for indicating two objects). Some other grammatical numbers present in various languages include trial (for three objects) and paucal (for an imprecise but small number of objects). In languages with dual, trial, or paucal numbers, plural refers to numbers higher than those. However, numbers besides singular, plural, and (to a lesser extent) dual are extremely rare. Languages with measure words such as Chinese and Japanese lack any significant grammatical number at all, though they are likely to have plural personal pronouns.

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