Polymerization

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form three-dimensional networks or polymer chains.[1][2][3] There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them.

Contents

Introduction

In chemical compounds, polymerization occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds[4] and their inherent steric effects explained by VSEPR Theory. In more straightforward polymerization, alkenes, which are relatively stable due to σ bonding between carbon atoms form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, more complex reactions such as those that involve substitution at the carbonyl group require more complex synthesis due to the way in which reacting molecules polymerize.[4]

As alkenes can be formed in somewhat straightforward reaction mechanisms, they form useful compounds such as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) when undergoing radical reactions,[4] which are produced in high tonnages each year[4] due to their usefulness in manufacturing processes of commercial products, such as piping, insulation and packaging. Polymers such as PVC are generally referred to as "homopolymers" as they consist of repeated long chains or structures of the same monomer unit, whereas polymers that consist of more than one molecule are referred to as "co-polymers".[5]

Other monomer units, such as formaldehyde hydrates or simple aldehydes, are able to polymerize themselves at quite low temperatures (>-80oC) to form trimers;[4] molecules consisting of 3 monomer units which can cyclize to form ring cyclic structures, or undergo further reactions to form tetramers,[4] or 4 monomer-unit compounds. Further compounds either being referred to as oligomers[4] in smaller molecules. Generally, because formaldehyde is an exceptionally reactive electrophile it allows nucleophillic addition of hemiacetal intermediates, which are generally short lived and relatively unstable "mid stage" compounds which react with other molecules present to form more stable polymeric compounds.

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