Pope Callixtus II

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Pope Calixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guy de Vienne, the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 1, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms (in 1122). Although his birth date is not known, his eldest brother was born in 1061, therefore we can assume that Guy himself was born between 1065 and 1068.


Early life

Guy was a member of the highest aristocracy. The fourth son of one of the wealthiest families in Europe, he was part of a network of noble alliances. He was cousin of the King of Italy Arduino of Ivrea father of Prince and Count Guido di San Martino, Prince Reghino di Valperga and Pince Ottone di Castellamonte, Counts of Canavese. One sister, Gisela, was married to Humbert II, Count of Savoy (1080–1103) and then to Renier I of Montferrat; another sister, Maud, was the wife of Eudes I of Burgundy (1079–1103). His brother Raymond was married to Urraca, the heiress of León; they became the parents of Alfonso VII of León. His brother Hugh had been appointed Archbishop of Besançon

Church career

Archbishop of Vienne

Guy first appeared in contemporary records when, in 1088, he became the Archbishop of Vienne. He held strong pro-Papal views about the Investiture Controversy. As archbishop, he was appointed papal legate to France by Pope Paschal II (1099–1118); this was during the time that Paschal II, yielding to pressure from Emperor Henry V (1105–25), was induced to issue the Privilegium of 1111, by which he yielded much of the papal prerogatives that had been so forcefully claimed by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in the Gregorian Reforms. Guy, with kin both in Burgundy and the Franche-Comté (that is, within the Emperor's jurisdiction and bordering it) led the pro-Papal opposition at the synod called at the Lateran in 1112; on his return to France he immediately convened an assembly of French and Burgundian bishops at Vienne, where the imperial claim to a traditional lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical, and a sentence of excommunication was now pronounced against Henry V, on the grounds that he had extorted the Privilegium from Paschal II by a violence. These decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for a confirmation, which they received, in general terms, for Paschal II had proved loath to take this step, October 20, 1112.

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