Pope Julius II

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Julius II (c. 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" (Il Papa Terribile)[1] and "The Warrior Pope" (Il Papa Guerriero),[2], born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. His papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts.


Early life

There is disagreement about Julius' date of birth. Some sources put his birth as late as 1453.[3] Giuliano della Rovere was the son of Rafaello della Rovere[4] brother of Pope Sixtus IV[5] and of Theodora Manerola, a lady of Greek extraction.[6][7][8][9][10][11] Giuliano was an altar boy of his uncle Pope Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere). He was educated among the Franciscans by his uncle, who took him under his special charge and later sent him to a convent in La Pérouse with the purpose of obtaining knowledge of the sciences. However, he does not appear to have joined the order of St. Francis, but rather remained a member of the secular clergy until his elevation to bishop of Carpentras, France, in 1471; very shortly after his uncle succeeded to the papal chair.

He was promoted to cardinal, taking the same title formerly held by his uncle, Cardinal of San Pietro in Vincula. With his uncle as Pope, he obtained great influence, and he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from 1472, and Coutances from 1476, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

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