Program counter

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{system, computer, user}
{math, number, function}

The program counter, or PC (also called the instruction pointer[1], or instruction address register[2], or just part of the instruction sequencer[3] in some computers) is a processor register that indicates where the computer is in its instruction sequence. Depending on the details of the particular computer, the PC holds either the address of the instruction being executed, or the address of the next instruction to be executed.

In most processors, the instruction pointer is incremented automatically after fetching a program instruction, so that instructions are normally retrieved sequentially from memory, with certain instructions, such as branches, jumps and subroutine calls and returns, interrupting the sequence by placing a new value in the program counter.

Such jump instructions allow a new address to be chosen as the start of the next part of the flow of instructions from the memory. They allow new values to be loaded (written) into the program counter register. A subroutine call is achieved simply by reading the old contents of the program counter, before they are overwritten by a new value, and saving them somewhere in memory or in another register. A subroutine return is then achieved by writing the saved value back in to the program counter again.


Working of a simple program counter

The central processing unit (CPU) of a simple computer contains the hardware (control unit and ALU) that executes the instructions, as they are fetched from the memory unit. Most instruction cycles[4] consist of the CPU sending an address, on the address bus, to the memory unit, which then responds by sending the contents of that memory location as data, on the data bus. (This is tied up with the idea of the stored-program computer in which executable instructions are stored alongside ordinary data in the memory unit, and handled identically by it[5]). The Program Counter (PC) is just one of the many registers in the hardware of the CPU. It, like each of the other registers, consists of a bank of binary latches (a binary latch is also known as a flip-flop), with one flip-flop per bit in the integer that is to be stored[6] (32 for a 32-bit CPU, for example). In the case of the PC, the integer represents the address in the memory unit that is to be fetched next.

Once the data (the instruction) has been received on the data bus, the PC is incremented. In some CPUs this is achieved by adding 000..001 to its contents, and latching the result into the register to be its new contents; on most CPUs, though, the PC is implemented as a register that is internally wired so that it counts up to the next value when a specific signal is applied to it externally[7]. Such a register, in electronics, is referred to as a binary counter, and hence the origin of the term program counter.

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