related topics
{language, word, form}
{land, century, early}
{woman, child, man}
{mi², represent, 1st}

Standard English personal pronouns:

Parts of speech:


Gender issues:


Other languages:

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (Lat: pronomen) is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun (or noun phrase), such as, in English, the words it (substituting for the name of a certain object) and he (substituting for the name of a person). The replaced noun is called the antecedent of the pronoun.

For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous. Pronouns without antecedents are also called unprecursed pronouns. English grammar allows pronouns to potentially have multiple candidate antecedents. The process of determining which antecedent was intended is known as anaphore resolution.

Pronouns are generally not capitalised even when they refer to a proper noun (except, of course, at the start of a sentence). Exceptions are the first-person pronoun I, which in standard English is always capitalised, and, in reverential use, pronouns which stand for the name of a deity, such as He referring to Jesus or the Christian God.

Full article ▸

related documents
Hausa language
Japanese wordplay
Alternation (linguistics)
Comitative case
Nilo-Saharan languages
Determiner (function)
Cardinal vowel
Adamawa-Ubangi languages
Southern Ndebele language
Example-based machine translation
Four-letter word
English in the Commonwealth of Nations
The Sound Pattern of English
Pomeranian language
Scriptio continua
Esperanto culture
Rusyn language
Grammatical particle