Proteinuria

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Proteinuria (pronounced /proʊtiːˈnʊəriə/ or /proʊtiːˈnjʊəriə/, from protein and urine) means the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine. The protein in the urine often causes the urine to become foamy, although foamy urine may also be caused by bilirubin in the urine (bilirubinuria),[1] retrograde ejaculation,[2] pneumaturia (air bubbles in the urine) due to a fistula,[3] or drugs such as pyridium.[1]

Contents

Causes

There are three main mechanisms to cause proteinuria:

Proteinuria can also be caused by certain biological agents such as Bevacizumab (Avastin) used in cancer treatment

Measurement

Proteinuria is often diagnosed by a simple dipstick test although it is possible for the test to give a false negative even with nephrotic range proteinuria if the urine is dilute. False negatives may also occur if the protein in the urine is composed mainly of globulins or Bence-Jones Proteins because the reagent on the test strips, Bromphenol blue, is highly specific for albumin.[6][7] Traditionally dipstick protein tests would be quantified by measuring the total quantity of protein in a 24-hour urine collection test, and abnormal globulins by specific requests for Protein electrophoresis.[1][8]

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