Provinces and territories of Canada

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The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces are jurisdictions that receive their power and authority directly from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territories derive their mandates and powers from the federal government. Similarly, in modern Canadian constitutional theory the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions of the monarchy, and each province has its own "Crown" represented by the lieutenant-governor, whereas the territories are not sovereign and are simply parts of the federal realm, and have a commissioner.

The ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan, while the three territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon.


Location of provinces and territories



1. de facto
2. French Language Services Act
3. Charter of the French Language
4. Section Sixteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
5. Manitoba Act
Prior to Confederation, Ontario and Quebec formed the Province of Canada.
British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island were separate colonies before joining Canada.
Manitoba was created simultaneously with the Northwest Territories.
Saskatchewan and Alberta were created out of land that had been part of the Northwest Territories.
Newfoundland was an independent Dominion within the British Commonwealth prior to joining Canada. Britain recognized Labrador as a possession of Newfoundland in 1927. The official name of the province changed from Newfoundland to Newfoundland and Labrador by constitutional amendment on 6 December 2001.
With the exception of Fredericton, the provincial capitals are all either the largest or second-largest cities in their respective provinces (Fredericton is the third largest city in New Brunswick after Moncton and Saint John).

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