Qing Dynasty

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Flag (1890–1912)

Chinese historiography
Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
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The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: Qīng Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'ing ch'ao; IPA: [t͡ɕʰíŋ t͡ʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]; Manchu: Daicing gurun.png, Von Möllendorff: Daicing Gurun), also known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the last ruling dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 (with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917). It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China.

The dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in what is today northeast China (also known as Manchuria). Starting in 1644 it expanded into China proper and its surrounding territories, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing (simplified Chinese: 大清国; traditional Chinese: 大清國; pinyin: Dà Qīng Guó; Wade–Giles: Ta Ch'ing Kuo, or simplified Chinese: 大清帝国; traditional Chinese: 大清帝國; pinyin: Dà Qīng Dì Guó; Wade–Giles: Ta Ch'ing Ti Kuo). Complete pacification of China was accomplished around 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor.

Originally established as the Later Jin Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 后金; traditional Chinese: 後金; pinyin: hòu jīn) Amaga Aisin Gurun (Amaga aisin gurun1.png) in 1616, it changed its name to "Qing", meaning "clear" or "pellucid" in 1636. In 1644 Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, a minor Ming official turned leader of the peasant revolt. The last Ming Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide when the city fell, marking the official end of the dynasty. The Manchus then allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing and overthrew Li's short-lived Shun Dynasty.

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