Quantum entanglement

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Quantum entanglement is a property of the quantum mechanical state of a system containing two or more objects, where the objects that make up the system are linked in such a way that the quantum state of any member of the system cannot be adequately described without full mention of the other members of the system, even if the individual objects are spatially separated. Quantum entanglement is at the heart of the EPR paradox that was described by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen in 1935, and it was experimentally verified for the first time in 1972 by Stuart Freedman and John Clauser[1].



Entanglement is a strikingly non-classical property of quantum mechanics, that arguably led to an unease with the theory by many of the early scientists. As put by Erwin Schrödinger in his seminal paper[2]:

Einstein was perhaps the most famous of the opponents of quantum theory, and was particularly displeased with its inherently random nature. In 1935, responding to Niels Bohr's advocacy that quantum mechanics as a theory was complete, together with Podolsky and Rosen, he formulated the EPR paradox[3]. The quantum mechanical thought experiment used the properties of an entangled system to (incorrectly) make predictions that were forbidden by quantum mechanics. Therefore, there are physical properties that can be predicted outside quantum mechanics, and thus quantum mechanics is incomplete. Einstein famously derided entanglement as "spukhafte Fernwirkung"[4] or "spooky action at a distance".

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