Quantum field theory

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Quantum field theory (QFT)[1] provides a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of systems classically parametrized (represented) by an infinite number of dynamical degrees of freedom, that is, fields and (in a condensed matter context) many-body systems. It is the natural and quantitative language of particle physics and condensed matter physics. Most theories in modern particle physics, including the Standard Model of elementary particles and their interactions, are formulated as relativistic quantum field theories. Quantum field theories are used in many contexts, elementary particle physics being the most vital example, where the particle count/number going into a reaction fluctuates and changes, differing from the count/number going out, for example, and for the description of critical phenomena and quantum phase transitions, such as in the BCS theory of superconductivity, also see phase transition, quantum phase transition, critical phenomena. Quantum field theory is thought by many to be the unique and correct outcome of combining the rules of quantum mechanics with special relativity.

In perturbative quantum field theory, the forces between particles are mediated by other particles. The electromagnetic force between two electrons is caused by an exchange of photons. Intermediate vector bosons mediate the weak force and gluons mediate the strong force. There is currently no complete quantum theory of the remaining fundamental force, gravity, but many of the proposed theories postulate the existence of a graviton particle that mediates it. These force-carrying particles are virtual particles and, by definition, cannot be detected while carrying the force, because such detection will imply that the force is not being carried. In addition, the notion of "force mediating particle" comes from perturbation theory, and thus does not make sense in a context of bound states.

In QFT photons are not thought of as 'little billiard balls', they are considered to be field quanta - necessarily chunked ripples in a field, or "excitations," that 'look like' particles. Fermions, like the electron, can also be described as ripples/excitations in a field, where each kind of fermion has its own field. In summary, the classical visualisation of "everything is particles and fields," in quantum field theory, resolves into "everything is particles," which then resolves into "everything is fields." In the end, particles are regarded as excited states of a field (field quanta). The gravitational field and the electromagnetic field are the only two fundamental fields in Nature that have infinite range and a corresponding classical low-energy limit, which greatly diminishes and hides their "particle-like" excitations. Albert Einstein, in 1905, attributed "particle-like" and discrete exchanges of momenta and energy, characteristic of "field quanta," to the electromagnetic field. Originally, his principal motivation was to explain the thermodynamics of radiation. Although it is often claimed that the photoelectric and Compton effects require a quantum description of the EM field, this is now understood to be untrue, and proper proof of the quantum nature of radiation is now taken up into modern quantum optics as in the antibunching effect[2]. The word "photon" was coined in 1926 by the great physical chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis (see also the articles photon antibunching and laser).

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