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In mathematics, especially in abstract algebra, a quasigroup is an algebraic structure resembling a group in the sense that "division" is always possible. Quasigroups differ from groups mainly in that they need not be associative. A quasigroup with an identity element is called a loop.



There are two equivalent formal definitions of quasigroup with, respectively, one and three primitive binary operations. We begin with the first definition, which is easier to follow.

A quasigroup (Q, *) is a set Q with a binary operation '*' (that is, a magma), such that for each a and b in Q, there exist unique elements x and y in Q such that:

  • a*x = b ;
  • y*a = b .

The unique solutions to these equations are written x = a \ b and y = b / a. The operations '\' and '/' are called, respectively, left and right division.

Universal algebra

Given some algebraic structure, an identity is an equation in which all variables are tacitly universally quantified, and in which all operations are among the primitive operations proper to the structure. Algebraic structures axiomatized solely by identities are called varieties. Many standard results in universal algebra hold only for varieties. Quasigroups are varieties if left and right division are taken as primitive.

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