Radiation pattern

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In the field of antenna design the term radiation pattern most commonly refers to the directional (angular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source (synonyms: antenna pattern, far-field pattern).[1][2][3]

Particularly in the fields of fiber optics, lasers, and integrated optics, the term radiation pattern, or near-field radiation pattern, may also be used as a synonym for the near-field pattern or Fresnel pattern.[4] This refers to the positional dependence of the electromagnetic field in the near-field, or Fresnel region of the source. The near-field pattern is most commonly defined over a plane placed in front of the source, or over a cylindrical or spherical surface enclosing it.[1][4]

The far-field pattern of an antenna may be determined experimentally at an antenna range, or alternatively, the near-field pattern may be found using a near-field scanner, and the radiation pattern deduced from it by computation.[1] The radiation pattern can also be calculated from the antenna shape by computer programs such as NEC.

The far field radiation pattern may be represented graphically as a plot of one of a number of related variables, including; the field strength at a constant (large) radius (an amplitude pattern or field pattern), the power per unit solid angle (power pattern) and the directive gain. Very often, only the relative amplitude is plotted, normalized either to the amplitude on the antenna boresight, or to the total radiated power. The plotted quantity may be shown on a linear scale, or in dB. The plot is typically represented as a three dimensional graph (as at right), or as separate graphs in the vertical plane and horizontal plane.



It is a fundamental property of antennas that the receiving pattern (sensitivity as a function of direction) of an antenna when used for receiving is identical to the far-field radiation pattern of the antenna when used for transmitting. This is a consequence of the reciprocity theorem of electromagnetics and is proved below. Therefore in discussions of radiation patterns the antenna can be viewed as either transmitting or receiving, whichever is more convenient.

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