Railroad switch

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A railroad switch, turnout or [set of] points is a mechanical installation enabling railway trains to be guided from one track to another at a railway junction.

The switch consists of the pair of linked tapering rails, known as points (switch rails or point blades), lying between the diverging outer rails (the stock rails). These points can be moved laterally into one of two positions to direct a train coming from the narrow end toward the straight path or the diverging path. A train moving from the narrow end toward the point blades (i.e. it may go either left or right) is said to be executing a facing-point movement.

Unless the switch is locked, a train coming from either of the converging directs will pass through the points onto the narrow end, regardless of the position of the points, as the vehicle's wheels will force the points to move. Passage through a switch in this direction is known as a trailing-point movement.

A switch generally has a straight "through" track (such as the main-line) and a diverging route. The handedness of the installation is described by the side that the diverging track leaves. Right-hand switches have a diverging path to the right of the straight track, when coming from the narrow end and a left-handed switch has the diverging track leaving to the opposite side.

A straight track is not always present; for example, both tracks may curve, one to the left and one to the right (such as for a Wye Switch) or both tracks may curve, with differing radii, in the same direction.

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