Reşiţa

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Reșița (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈreʃit͡sa]; German: Reschitz, Croatian: Rešica, Hungarian: Resicabánya, Serbian: Rešica, Czech: Rešice) is a city in western Romania and the capital of Caraș-Severin County, in the Banat region. Its 2004 population was 83,985.

Contents

History

Historically, the town has its origins in the 15th century under the name of Rechyoka and Rechycha. Archaeological research found traces of habitation going back to the Neolithic, Dacian and Roman eras. It was mentioned in 1673 under the name of Reszinitza, whose citizens paid taxes to Timişoara, and by the years 1690–1700, it was mentioned as being part of the District of Bocşa together with other towns in the Bârzava Valley. The town was referenced to in the conscription acts of 1717 under the name of Retziza. On 3 July 1771, it became an important metal-manufacturing center in the region. The foundation of the industrial Reșița were laid with the establishment of factories near the villages of Reșița Română (Reschiza Kamerală or Olah Resitza) and Reșița Montană (Eisenwerk Reschitza, Nemet Reschitza or Resiczbanya). Reșița Montană was at first inhabited by Romanians, and later, in 1776, 70 German families settled there. Between the years 1910–1925, Reșița had the status of a rural area, and in 1925, it was declared a town thanks to its development to a powerful industrial location in modern Romania. In 1968, it became a municipality.

After 1989 Reșița lost most of its importance and its economy faced a drawback, along with the Romanian economy. The population also suffered a decrease, dropping from 110,000 in 1989 to 86,000 in 2006. After the fall of communism, the Reșița Steelworks (Combinatul Siderurgic Reșița, CSR) were bought by an American investor who brought the factory just one step away from bankruptcy. Today the steelworks are run by a Russian company, who has projects of modernization for the CSR. Still, it is believed that CSR would never reach again the status it had in the communist era.

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