Reconquista

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711–732 Invasions

756–1039 Omayyads of Córdoba

1039–1085 Taifas

1085–1145 Almoravids

1147–1238 Almohads

1238–1492 Emirate of Granada

The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest"; Arabic: الاسترداد al-ʼIstirdād, "Recapturing") was a period of about 700 years (539 years in Portugal) in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking (and repopulating) the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim Al-Andalus Province. The Islamic conquest of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom in the 8th century (begun 710–12) extended over almost the entire peninsula (except major parts of Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Catalonia and the Basque Country). After 500 years, in the 13th century, the sole remaining Moors ruling were the Nasrid dynasty in the Kingdom of Granada. They were defeated in 1492, which brought the entire Iberian Peninsula under Christian rule, thus completing the Reconquista.

The Reconquista of Al-Andalus began soon after the Islamic conquest and passed through major phases over the centuries before its completion. The formation of the Kingdom of Asturias under Pelagius and the Battle of Covadonga in 722 were major formative events. Charlemagne (768–814) reconquered the western Pyrenees and Septimania and formed a Marca Hispánica to defend the border between Francia and the Muslims. After the advent of the Crusades, much of the ideology of Reconquista was subsumed within the wider context of Crusading. Even before the Crusades, however, soldiers from elsewhere in Europe had been traveling to Iberia to participate in the Reconquista as an act of Christian penitence. Crusaders poured into specifically the county of Portucale led by Afonso Henriques. By 1249, the reconquest of Portugal was complete and all Moors banished.

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