Red brick university

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Red brick university (or "redbrick university") is an informal term used to refer to six particular universities founded in the major industrial cities of England[1], all of which achieved university status before World War I and were initially established as civic science and/or engineering colleges.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Whilst the term was originally coined as these institutions were new and thus regarded by the ancient universities as arriviste,[8] the description has since ceased to be derogatory with the proliferation of 1960s universities and the reclassification of various polytechnics in 1992. The six institutions are members of the Russell Group (which receives two-thirds of all research grant funding in the United Kingdom).[9]


The civic university movement

The Red Bricks are:

The English civic university movement developed out of various 19th century private research and education institutes in industrial cities. The 1824 Manchester Mechanics' Institute formed the basis of the Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), and thus led towards the University of Manchester proper.[6] The University of Birmingham has origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School.[2] The University of Leeds also owes its foundations to a medical school: the 1831 Leeds School of Medicine. The University of Bristol began with the 1876 University College, Bristol[3], the University of Liverpool with a University College in 1881 [5], and the University of Sheffield with a university college in 1897.[7]

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