Republic of China

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 70% Hoklo
 14% Hakka
 14% Mainlanders[6]

b. ^ Nanjing was the seat of the government from 1928 until 1949 except during wars, when the government retreated to Taipei.

The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan, is a state in East Asia located about 180 km (111.85 miles) off the east coast of mainland China. Subject to an ongoing dispute with the People's Republic of China (PRC) that has left it with limited formal diplomatic relations, the government of the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan, which makes up 99.4% of its territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor islands. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south.

The Republic of China was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911. From its founding until 1949 it encompassed mainland China, including Outer Mongolia. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), Japanese invasion (1937–45), and the Chinese Civil War (1927–49), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade (1927–37) when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang (KMT). At the end of World War II the Empire of Japan retroceded Taiwan and its island groups under the Cairo Declaration, which the Republic of China took control afterwards.

The Communist takeover of continental China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 and later Hainan, Tachen and other outlying islands in the 1950s left the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) with control over only Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands. The KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital.[17] The Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China[18][19] and founded the People's Republic of China in Beijing, leading to two rival governments claiming to be the sole legitimate government of China. However, until the 1970s the ROC was still recognized by many countries and the United Nations as the sole legitimate government of both mainland China and Taiwan. The ROC had been a founding member of the United Nations[20] and one of the five permanent members of the Security Council until 1971, when China's representation was replaced by the PRC via UN General Assembly Resolution 2758.

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