Republic of Ireland

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– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Ireland[6] (pronounced /ˈaɪərlənd/  ( listen), locally /ˈɑrlənd/; Irish: Éire, pronounced [ˈeːɾʲə]  ( listen)), described as the Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann),[7] is a state in Western Europe of almost 4.5 million inhabitants.[3] It is a parliamentary democratic and constitutional republic encompassing approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, which was partitioned into two jurisdictions in 1921.[8] The country shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea to the east, St George's Channel to the southeast, and the Celtic Sea to the south.

At the conclusion of the Irish War of Independence, the Anglo-Irish Treaty established the Irish Free State on 6 December 1922 as a self-governing dominion within the British Commonwealth.[note 2] It gained increasing sovereignty through the Statute of Westminster and the abdication crisis of 1936.[note 3] A new constitution introduced in 1937 declared it an entirely sovereign state named Ireland.[9][10] The last formal link with the United Kingdom was severed in 1949 when the Oireachtas (national parliament) passed the Republic of Ireland Act,[11] which proclaimed Ireland a republic by discarding the remaining duties of the monarch.[12] Ireland seceded from the British Commonwealth, having discontinued attending meetings in 1937.[13] Britain officially recognised the new republic through the Ireland Act 1949.

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