Rivendell (Sindarin: Imladris) is an Elven outpost in Middle-earth, a fictional realm created by J. R. R. Tolkien. It was established and ruled by Elrond in the Second Age of Middle-earth (four or five thousand years before the events of The Lord of the Rings). In addition to Elrond and his family, notable Elves who lived there included Glorfindel and Erestor.
Rivendell is a direct translation or calque of the Sindarin name Imladris, both meaning "deep valley of the cleft".
Rivendell is also called "Imladris" in Sindarin and "Karningul" in Westron. The name Rivendell is formed by two elements: "riven" and "dell" meaning split, cloven and valley respectively, making the whole word purport "deeply cloven valley". It is also referred to as The Last Homely House west of the Mountains, alluding to the wilderland that lies beyond the Misty Mountains.
Rivendell is located at the edge of a narrow gorge of the river Bruinen (one of the main approaches to Rivendell comes from a nearby ford of Bruinen), but well hidden in the moorlands and foothills of the Hithaeglir or the Misty Mountains.
The climate is cool-temperate and semi-continental with moderately warm summers, fairly snowy — but not frigid — winters and moderate precipitation. Seasons are more pronounced than in areas further west, such as the Shire, but less extreme than the places east of the Misty Mountains. Like Hobbiton, it is located at about 52 degrees north latitude, a reference by Tolkien to his then hometown Oxford.
Rivendell was founded in Second Age 1697 when a force sent by Gil-galad from Lindon and led by Elrond rescued the refugees of Eregion from Sauron's army and was driven into the hills of Rhudaur. Sauron's forces subsequently laid siege to the refuge for three years until a relief army sent by Gil-galad attacked the besieging force in conjunction with the defenders and annihilated it. Rivendell was next attacked in the fourteenth century of the Third Age when the Armies of the Witch-king of Angmar attacked the refuge. After some years they were driven off when reinforcements were sent from Lothlórien. Rivendell is protected by the powers of its lord, Elrond Half-Elven, and his ring Vilya.
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