Rubiaceae

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Cinchonoideae
Ixoroideae
Rubioideae
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Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants, variously called the madder family, bedstraw family or coffee family. Other common plants included are gardenia, cinchona (whose bark contains quinine), sweet woodruff, partridgeberry, gambier, ixora, and noni. A number of traditionally accepted families (Dialypetalanthaceae, Henriqueziaceae, Naucleaceae, and Theligonaceae) are now incorporated within the Rubiaceae following molecular phylogenetic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. Currently, there are about 611 genera and more than 13,000 species in Rubiaceae. It is the fifth largest family of flowering plants by number of genera, and the fourth or fifth largest by number of species. Species are concentrated in warmer and tropical climates around the world.

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Description

A wide variety of growth forms are present in the Rubiaceae. While shrubs are most common, members of the family can also be trees, lianas or herbs. The leaves are usually paired at the node, emerging on opposite sides of the stem, as are the stipules, which usually grow on the sides of the stem between the petioles of the leaves. The flowers, which are usually bisexual, have a 4–5 lobed calyx and generally a 4–5 lobed corolla, 4 or 5 stamens and two carpels.[1]

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