Saladin

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Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūbi (Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, Kurdish: سه‌لاحه‌دین ئه‌یوبی, Selah'edînê Eyubî , Persian: صلاح‌الدین ایّوبی, Salāh-ed-Dīn Ayyūbi) (c. 1138 – March 4, 1193), better known in the Western world as Saladin, was a Kurdish[2][3][4] Muslim, who became the first Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He led Islamic opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, he ruled over Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz, and Yemen.

He led the Muslims against the Crusaders and eventually recaptured Palestine from the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem after his victory in the Battle of Hattin. As such, he is a notable figure in Kurdish, Arab, and Muslim culture. Saladin was a strict adherent of Sunni Islam and a mystical disciple of the Qadiri Sufi order.[5] His chivalrous behavior was noted by Christian chroniclers, especially in the accounts of the siege of Kerak in Moab, and despite being the nemesis of the Crusaders he won the respect of many of them, including Richard the Lionheart; rather than becoming a hated figure in Europe, he became a celebrated example of the principles of chivalry.

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