Sapphire

related topics
{acid, form, water}
{@card@, make, design}
{company, market, business}
{math, energy, light}
{system, computer, user}
{city, large, area}
{black, white, people}
{rate, high, increase}
{area, part, region}

Sapphire (Greek: σάπφειρος; sappheiros, "blue stone"[1]) is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3), when it is a color other than red or dark pink, in which case the gem would instead be called a ruby, considered to be a different gemstone. Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, or chromium can give corundum blue, yellow, pink, purple, orange, or greenish color. Pink-orange sapphires are also called padparadscha. Pure chromium is the distinct impurity of rubies. However, a combination of e.g. chromium and titanium can give a sapphire of a color distinct from red.

Sapphires are commonly worn as jewelery. Sapphires can be found naturally, by searching through certain sediments or rock formations, or they can be manufactured for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires (and of aluminum oxide in general), sapphires are used in some non-ornamental applications, including infrared optical components, such as in scientific instruments; high-durability windows (also used in scientific instruments); wristwatch crystals; and very thin electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of very special-purpose solid-state electronics (most of which are integrated circuits).

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Cast iron
Indigo dye
Smelting
Soldering
Vulcanization
Chrysoberyl
Wrought iron
Nylon
Microelectromechanical systems
Photolithography
Reinforced concrete
Ultramarine
Polyethylene glycol
Phosphor
Pigment
Lamp (electrical component)
Boric acid
Hydronium
Formic acid
Cubic zirconia
Biogas
Aqua regia
Olivine
SDS-PAGE
Thiol
Ytterbium
Ununoctium
Sulfate
Tellurium
Differential scanning calorimetry