Scombridae

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Gasterochismatinae
Scombrinae

Scombridae is the family of the mackerels, tunas, and bonitos, and thus includes many of the most important and familiar food fishes. The family consists of about 55 species in 15 genera and two subfamilies. All species are Scombrinae, except Butterfly kingfish - which is the sole member of subfamily Gasterochismatinae.

Scombrids have two dorsal fins, and a series of finlets between the rear dorsal fin and behind the anal fin. The caudal fin is strongly divided and rigid, with a slender, ridged, base. The first (spiny) dorsal fin and the pelvic fins are normally retracted into body grooves. Species length varies from the 20 cm length of the island mackerel to the 458 cm recorded for the immense northern bluefin tuna.

Scombrids are generally predators of the open ocean, and are found worldwide in tropical and temperate waters. They are capable of considerable speed, due to a highly streamlined body and retractable fins. Some members of the family, in particular the tunas, are notable for being endothermic (warm-blooded), a feature that also helps them to maintain high speed and activity. Other adaptations include a large amount of red muscle, allowing them to maintain activity over long periods. The fastest recorded scombrid is the wahoo, which can attain speeds of 75 kilometres per hour (47 mph).[1]

Contents

Classification

Jordan, Evermann and Clark (1930) divide these fishes into the four families Cybiidae, Katsuwonidae, Scombridae, and Thunnidae,[2] but this article follows FishBase in placing them in the single family Scombridae.[3]

There are about fifty species in fourteen genera:

Family Scombridae

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