Solubility equilibrium

related topics
{acid, form, water}
{math, number, function}
{math, energy, light}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}

Solubility equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium. It exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound. The solid may dissolve unchanged, with dissociation or with chemical reaction with another constituent of the solvent, such as acid or alkali. Each type of equilibrium is characterized by a temperature-dependent equilibrium constant. Solubility equilibria are important in pharmaceutical, environmental and many other scenarios.

Contents

Definitions

A solubility equilibrium exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound. The equilibrium is an example of dynamic equilibrium in that some individual molecules migrate between the solid and solution phases such that the rates of dissolution and precipitation are equal to one another. When equilibrium is established, the solution is said to be saturated. The concentration of the solute in a saturated solution is known as the solubility. Units of solubility may be molar (mol dm−3) or expressed as mass per unit volume, such as μg ml−1. Solubility is temperature dependent. A solution containing a higher concentration of solute than the solubility is said to be supersaturated. A supersaturated solution may be induced to come to equilibrium by the addition of a "seed" which may be a tiny crystal of the solute, or a tiny solid particle, which initiates precipitation.

Full article ▸

related documents
Boron nitride
Cerium
Nuclear pore
Formaldehyde
Yttrium
Calcium
Combustion
Chromatography
Acetylene
Rare earth element
Cellular respiration
Ununquadium
Polyethylene
Mineral
Niobium
PH
Redox
Hydrogen bond
Hydrazine
Glucose
Chromium
Radiometric dating
Tantalum
Ion implantation
Silicon dioxide
Proteasome
Nuclear chain reaction
Soil pH
Amine
Nitrogen cycle