Specific impulse

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Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. It represents the impulse (change in momentum) per unit amount of propellant used.[1] The unit amount may be given either per unit mass (such as kilograms), or per unit Earth-weight (such as kiloponds, since g is used for the latter definition).[2] The higher the specific impulse, the less propellant is needed to gain a given amount of momentum.

The actual exhaust velocity is the average speed that the exhaust jet actually leaves the vehicle. The effective exhaust velocity is the speed that the propellant, that the vehicle burns per second, would have to leave the vehicle to give the same thrust. The two are about the same for a rocket working in a vacuum, but are radically different for an airbreathing jet engine that obtains extra thrust by accelerating air. Specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity are proportional.

Specific impulse is a useful value to compare engines, much like miles per gallon or litres per 100 kilometres is used for cars. A propulsion method with a higher specific impulse is more propellant-efficient.[1] Another number that measures the same thing, usually used for air-breathing jet engines, is specific fuel consumption. Specific fuel consumption is inversely proportional to specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity.

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General considerations

Propellant is normally measured either in units of mass, or in units of weight at sea level on Earth. If mass is used, specific impulse is an impulse per unit mass, which dimensional analysis shows to be a unit of speed, and so specific impulses are often measured in metres per second, and are often termed effective exhaust velocity. However, if propellant weight is used instead, an impulse divided by a force (weight) turns out to be a unit of time, and so specific impulses are measured in seconds. These two formulations are both widely used, and differ from each other by a factor of g, the dimensioned constant of gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth.

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