Strong interaction

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In particle physics, the strong interaction (also called the strong force, strong nuclear force, or colour force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation. It is a non-contact force. At atomic scale, it is about 100 times stronger than electromagnetism, which in turn is orders of magnitude stronger than the weak force and gravitation.

The strong interaction is observable in two areas: On the larger scale, it is the force that binds protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale, it is also the force that holds quarks and gluons together to form the proton, the neutron and other particles.

In the context of binding protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form atoms, the strong interaction is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force). In this case, it is the residuum of the strong interaction between the quarks that make up the protons and neutrons. As such, the residual strong interaction obeys a quite different distance-dependent behavior between nucleons, from when it is acting to bind quarks within nucleons.

The strong force is thought to be mediated by gluons, acting upon quarks, antiquarks, and the gluons themselves. This is detailed in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).



Before the 1970s, physicists were uncertain about the binding mechanism of the atomic nucleus. It was known that the nucleus was composed of protons and neutrons and that protons possessed positive electric charge while neutrons were electrically neutral. However, these facts seemed to contradict one another. By physical understanding at that time, positive charges would repel one another and the nucleus should therefore fly apart. However, this was never observed. New physics was needed to explain this phenomenon.

A stronger attractive force was postulated to explain how the atomic nucleus was bound together despite the protons' mutual electromagnetic repulsion. This hypothesized force was called the strong force, which was believed to be a fundamental force that acted on the nucleons (the protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus). Experiments suggested that this force bound protons and neutrons together with equal strength.[citation needed]

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