Subarctic climate

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The subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) is a climate characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers. It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50° to 70°N poleward of the humid continental climates. These climates represent Köppen climate classification Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, and Dwd. In very small areas at high altitudes around the Mediterranean Basin and Iran there may be a Dsc with a dry summer climate, but there are no records for such areas.



This type of climate offers some of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations found on the planet: In winter, temperatures can drop to −40 °C (−40 °F) and in summer, the temperature may exceed +30 °C (86 °F). However, the summers are short; no more than three months of the year (but at least one month) must have a 24-hour average temperature of at least +10 °C (50 °F) to fall into this category of climate. The subarctic climate is a subset of the humid continental climate.


The Dfc climate, by far the most common subarctic type is found in the following areas[citation needed]:

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