Sugar

related topics
{food, make, wine}
{acid, form, water}
{company, market, business}
{disease, patient, cell}
{country, population, people}
{rate, high, increase}
{land, century, early}
{theory, work, human}
{government, party, election}
{work, book, publish}
{island, water, area}

Sugar is a term for a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose[1] characterized by a sweet flavor. In food, sugar almost exclusively refers to sucrose, which primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet. Other sugars are used in industrial food preparation, but are usually known by more specific names—glucose, fructose or fruit sugar, high fructose corn syrup, etc.

Currently, Brazil has the highest per capita production of sugar.[2]

Sugar, because of its simpler chemical structure, was once assumed (without scientific research) to raise blood glucose levels more quickly than starch, but results from more than twenty studies demonstrate that sugar and starch cause blood glucose to rise at similar rates. This finding showed that controlling all carbohydrates is necessary for controlling blood glucose levels in diabetics, the idea behind carbohydrate counting.[3] Many experts believe that eating too much sugar does not cause diabetes,[4][5][6][7][8][9] although excessive calories from sugar can lead to obesity, which may increase the risk of diabetes.[5][8] However, a 2010 meta-analysis of eleven studies involving 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes[10] found that "SSBs [sugar-sweetened beverages] may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes not only through obesity but also by increasing dietary glycemic load, leading to insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and inflammation."

Sugars such as sucrose are known to contribute to tooth decay, and it is impossible to develop cavities in the absence of fermentable carbohydrates.[citation needed] The role of starches is disputed. Lower rates of tooth decay have been seen in hereditary fructose intolerance.[11]

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Perfume
Brewing
Vinegar
Pizza
Butter
Cuisine of the Southern United States
Vanilla
Milk
Barbecue
Sake
Vodka
Cigar
German cuisine
Champagne (wine)
Hay
Food preservation
Swedish cuisine
Maple syrup
Banana
Wine
Sparkling wine
Areca nut
English cuisine
Black pepper
Taro
Soft drink
Rice
Olive oil
Ramen
Sushi