Superscalar

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A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism called instruction level parallelism within a single processor. It therefore allows faster CPU throughput than would otherwise be possible at a given clock rate. A superscalar processor executes more than one instruction during a clock cycle by simultaneously dispatching multiple instructions to redundant functional units on the processor. Each functional unit is not a separate CPU core but an execution resource within a single CPU such as an arithmetic logic unit, a bit shifter, or a multiplier.

While a superscalar CPU is typically also pipelined, pipelining and superscalar architecture are considered different performance enhancement techniques.

The superscalar technique is traditionally associated with several identifying characteristics (within a given CPU core):

  • Instructions are issued from a sequential instruction stream
  • CPU hardware dynamically checks for data dependencies between instructions at run time (versus software checking at compile time)
  • The CPU accepts multiple instructions per clock cycle

Contents

History

Seymour Cray's CDC 6600 from 1965 is often mentioned as the first superscalar design. The Intel i960CA (1988) and the AMD 29000-series 29050 (1990) microprocessors were the first commercial single-chip superscalar microprocessors. RISC CPUs like these brought the superscalar concept to microcomputers because the RISC design results in a simple core, allowing straightforward instruction dispatch and the inclusion of multiple functional units (such as ALUs) on a single CPU in the constrained design rules of the time. This was the reason that RISC designs were faster than CISC designs through the 1980s and into the 1990s.

Except for CPUs used in low-power applications, embedded systems, and battery-powered devices, essentially all general-purpose CPUs developed since about 1998 are superscalar.

The P5 Pentium was the first superscalar x86 processor; the Nx586, P6 Pentium Pro and AMD K5 were among the first designs which decode x86-instructions asynchronously into dynamic microcode-like micro-op sequences prior to actual execution on a superscalar microarchitecture; this opened up for dynamic scheduling of buffered partial instructions and enabled more parallelism to be extracted compared to the more rigid methods used in the simpler P5 Pentium; it also simplified speculative execution and allowed higher clock frequencies compared to designs such as the advanced Cyrix 6x86.

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