related topics
{law, state, case}
{@card@, make, design}
{math, energy, light}
{build, building, house}
{area, part, region}
{company, market, business}
{work, book, publish}
{rate, high, increase}
{land, century, early}
{theory, work, human}
{system, computer, user}
{school, student, university}
{line, north, south}
{group, member, jewish}
{math, number, function}

Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes.

To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law .

An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details.

Furthermore, as alluded to above, a particular type of surveying known as "land surveying" (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 5,000 years ago). It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.


History of surveying

Surveying techniques have existed throughout much of recorded history. In ancient Egypt, when the Nile River overflowed its banks and washed out farm boundaries, boundaries were re-established by a rope stretcher, or surveyor, through the application of simple geometry. The nearly perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying.

Full article ▸

related documents
Northwest Ordinance
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Probable cause
Trusts and estates
Office québécois de la langue française
Court of First Instance
New Rome, Ohio
William Calley
Title IX
Gibbons v. Ogden
Court of Appeal of England and Wales
Gay panic defense
Court order
Freedom of information in the United States
Procedural justice
Drug Enforcement Administration
John Allen Muhammad
Matthew Shepard
County Court
Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution
Shoko Asahara
John N. Mitchell
Code duello
Louise Arbour
Fine (penalty)
Act of Congress
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee