Symmetry group

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The symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all isometries under which it is invariant with composition as the operation. It is a subgroup of the isometry group of the space concerned.

If not stated otherwise, this article considers symmetry groups in Euclidean geometry, but the concept may also be studied in wider contexts; see below.



The "objects" may be geometric figures, images, and patterns, such as a wallpaper pattern. The definition can be made more precise by specifying what is meant by image or pattern, e.g., a function of position with values in a set of colors. For symmetry of physical objects, one may also want to take physical composition into account. The group of isometries of space induces a group action on objects in it.

The symmetry group is sometimes also called full symmetry group in order to emphasize that it includes the orientation-reversing isometries (like reflections, glide reflections and improper rotations) under which the figure is invariant. The subgroup of orientation-preserving isometries (i.e. translations, rotations, and compositions of these) which leave the figure invariant is called its proper symmetry group. The proper symmetry group of an object is equal to its full symmetry group if and only if the object is chiral (and thus there are no orientation-reversing isometries under which it is invariant).

Any symmetry group whose elements have a common fixed point, which is true for all finite symmetry groups and also for the symmetry groups of bounded figures, can be represented as a subgroup of orthogonal group O(n) by choosing the origin to be a fixed point. The proper symmetry group is a subgroup of the special orthogonal group SO(n) then, and therefore also called rotation group of the figure.

Discrete symmetry groups come in three types: (1) finite point groups, which include only rotations, reflections, inversion and rotoinversion - they are in fact just the finite subgroups of O(n), (2) infinite lattice groups, which include only translations, and (3) infinite space groups which combines elements of both previous types, and may also include extra transformations like screw axis and glide reflection. There are also continuous symmetry groups, which contain rotations of arbitrarily small angles or translations of arbitrarily small distances. The group of all symmetries of a sphere O(3) is an example of this, and in general such continuous symmetry groups are studied as Lie groups. With a categorization of subgroups of the Euclidean group corresponds a categorization of symmetry groups.

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