Taste

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Taste (or, more formally, gustation; adjectival form: "gustatory") is one of the traditional five senses. It refers to the ability to detect the flavor of substances such as food, certain minerals, and poisons, etc.

Humans receive tastes through sensory organs called taste buds,[1] or gustatory calyculi, concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue.[2]

The sensation of taste is traditionally broken into basic tastes: sweetness, bitterness, sourness, saltiness, etc. Umami is a basic taste,[3] although only recently popularized in Western cuisine.[4][5][6]

As taste senses both harmful and beneficial things, all basic tastes are classified as either appetitive or aversive depending upon the effect the things they sense have on our bodies.[7]

The basic tastes only partially contribute to the sensation and flavor of food in the mouth—other factors include smell,[1] detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose;[8] texture,[9][10] detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.;[11] and temperature, detected by thermoreceptors.

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