Tehran Conference

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The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka[1]) was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943, most of which was held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II conference amongst the Big Three (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom) in which Stalin was present. It almost immediately followed the Cairo Conference (November 22–26, 1943) and was followed by the Yalta Conference (February 4–11, 1945) and the Potsdam Conference (July 17 - August 2, 1945). The central aim of the Tehran conference was to plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, and the chief discussion was centered on the opening of a second front in Western Europe.

At the same time, another separate protocol pledged the three countries to recognize Iran's independence:



The key Allied leaders—Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill - met together only twice during World War II.

The first of these two meetings, the Tehran Conference, took place in Tehran, Iran. It only came about after much pleading and threats from Roosevelt who wished to strengthen the cooperation between the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR. In fact, Roosevelt wanted this meeting so much that he was willing to make numerous concessions to Stalin, and the choice of the location itself was a place that was more convenient for Stalin. Stalin was afraid of flying and took an airplane only once, namely for this occasion.[2]

Churchill and the British diplomats hoped to establish a method for dealing with Stalin before the conference, and therefore they arranged the Cairo Conference, which, however, did not go as planned. Roosevelt was withdrawn and edgy, ignoring the Stalin issue, and the conference was spent discussing mainly future policy with China and Japan. From the Cairo Conference, it appeared that Roosevelt planned to deal with Stalin alone, but as it turned out his health would not permit him to negotiate with Stalin from a strong, focused position. Roosevelt arrived in Tehran on November 28, 1943 in poor physical condition. In contrast, Stalin arrived jubilant and swaggering after the USSR’s recent victories in Eastern Europe, and he clearly held the upper hand.

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