The End of History and the Last Man

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The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay "The End of History?", published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. In the book, Fukuyama argues that the advent of Western liberal democracy may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human government.

Some[who?] see his thesis conflicting with Karl Marx's version of the "end of prehistory."[2] Fukyama himself identifies on some level with Marx, but identifies most strongly with the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, by way of Alexandre Kojève. Kojeve argued that the progress of history must lead toward the establishment of a "universal and homogenous" state,[3] most likely incorporating elements of liberal or social democracy; but Kojeve's emphasis on the necessarily "post-political" character of such a state (and its citizens) makes such comparisons inadequate, and is irreducible to any mere "triumph" of capitalism.[4] It is conjectured that Fukuyama learned of Kojève through his teacher Allan Bloom.



  • History should be viewed as an evolutionary process
  • Events still occur at the end of history
  • Pessimism about man's future is warranted because of man's inability to control technology
  • The end of history means liberal democracy will become the only form of government for all States. This form of government will be the last form of government.

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