Thermodynamic temperature

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Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic temperature is an "absolute" scale because it is the measure of the fundamental property underlying temperature: its null or zero point, absolute zero, is the temperature at which the particle constituents of matter have minimal motion and can be no colder.

Contents

Overview

Temperature arises from the random submicroscopic vibrations of the particle constituents of matter. These motions comprise the kinetic energy in a substance. More specifically, the thermodynamic temperature of any bulk quantity of matter is the measure of the average kinetic energy of a certain kind of vibrational motion of its constituent particles called translational motions. Translational motions are ordinary, whole-body movements in three-dimensional space whereby particles move about and exchange energy in collisions. Figure 1 below shows translational motion in gases; Figure 4 below shows translational motion in solids. Thermodynamic temperature's null point, absolute zero, is the temperature at which the particle constituents of matter are as close as possible to complete rest; that is, they have minimal motion, retaining only quantum mechanical motion.[1] Zero kinetic energy remains in a substance at absolute zero (see Heat energy at absolute zero, below).

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