Third Crusade

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Reconquista – Sardinian – First – People's – 1101 – Norwegian – Balearic – Wendish – Second – Third – 1197 – Livonian – Fourth – Albigensian – Children's – Fifth – Sixth – Prussian – Second Swedish – Seventh – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Third Swedish – Smyrniote – Alexandrian – Savoyard – Mahdia – Nicopolis – Varna – Lepanto – Armada

The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin (Salāh ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb). It was largely successful, yet fell short of its ultimate goal—the reconquest of Jerusalem.

After the failure of the Second Crusade, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt, which ultimately resulted in the unification of Egyptian and Syrian forces under the command of Saladin, who employed them to reduce the Christian states and to recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Spurred by religious zeal, Henry II of England and Philip II of France ended their conflict with each other to lead a new Crusade (although Henry's death in 1189 put the English contingent under the command of Richard Lionheart instead). The elderly Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa responded to the call to arms, and led a massive army across Anatolia, but drowned before reaching the Holy Land. Many of his discouraged troops left to go home.

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