Tiberius Gracchus

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Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (b.168-163 BC d.133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC and brother of Gaius Gracchus. As a plebeian tribune, his reforms of agrarian legislation caused political turmoil in the Republic. These reforms threatened the holdings of rich landowners in Italy. He was murdered along with many of his supporters, by members of the Roman Senate and supporters of the conservative Optimate faction.



The Gracchi branch of the gens Sempronia was one of the most politically connected families of Rome. Tiberius was born between 168 and 163 BC (his birthdate cannot be confirmed); he was the son of Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and Cornelia Africana.[1] His maternal grandparents were Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Aemilia Paulla, Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus' sister, and his own sister Sempronia was the wife of Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, another important general. Tiberius was raised by his mother, with his sister and his brother Gaius Gracchus. Later he married Claudia Pulchra, daughter of Appius Claudius Pulcher.

Military career

Tiberius's military career started in the Third Punic War, as military tribune appointed to the staff of his brother in law, Scipio Aemilianus. In 137 BC he was appointed quaestor to consul Gaius Hostilius Mancinus and served his term in Numantia (Hispania province). The campaign was part of the Numantine War and was not successful; Mancinus's army suffered a major defeat.[2] It was Tiberius, as quaestor, who saved the army from destruction by signing a peace treaty with the enemy.[3] Back in Rome, Scipio Aemilianus did not use his influence to support Tiberius and uphold the peace.[4] This was perhaps the start of the political enmity between Tiberius and the Senate (and between Tiberius and Scipio Aemilianus).

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