Title IX

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Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is a United States law enacted on June 23, 1972. In 2002 it was renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, in honor of its principal author Congresswoman Mink, but is most commonly known simply as Title IX. The law states that

Although Title IX is best known for its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no explicit mention of sports.[2]



Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was originally written in order to end discrimination based on color, the act tremendously helped to energize the Women’s Rights movement of the 1970s which had somewhat slowed after women’s suffrage in 1920.[3]

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 says that any institution receiving federal funding may not discriminate against anyone based on gender. This act was passed in 1971 as a result of combining acts VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act. Title VI states that, “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color or national origin, be excluded from, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.[3] Title VII forbids discrimination in hiring and employment based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.[3] In the context of Title IX and women’s rights it is important to note that Title VI includes no mention of gender bias whereas Title VII does After signing the Civil Rights act a few years earlier, in 1967, President Johnson issued a series of executive orders in order to make some clarifications. Before these clarifications were made, the National Organization for Women (NOW) persuaded President Johnson to include women in his executive orders.[3] The most notable order was Order 11246 which required all entities receiving federal contracts to end discrimination in hiring. In 1969, emerging activist Bernice Sandler used the executive order to help her fight for her job at the University of Maryland.[4] She used university statistics showing how female employment at the university had plummeted as qualified women were replaced by men.[3] Sandler brought her grievance to the Department of Labor’s Office for Federal Fair Contracts Compliance where she was encouraged to file a formal complaint. Citing inequalities in pay, rank, admissions and much more, Sandler began to file complaints not only against the University of Maryland but numerous other colleges as well. Working in conjunction with NOW and Women's Equity Action League (WEAL), Sandler filed 250 complaints against colleges and universities.[3]

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