Tomás de Zumalacárregui

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Tomás de Zumalacárregui y de Imaz (1788–1835) was a Spanish Carlist general


From Peninsula War to Ferdinand VII

Zumalacárregui was born at Ormaiztegi in Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, on 29 December 1788. His father, Francisco Antonio de Zumalacárregui, was a lawyer who possessed some property, and the son was articled to a solicitor.

When the French invasion of Spain took place in 1808 he enlisted at Zaragoza. He served in the first siege, at the Battle of Tudela, and during the second siege until he was taken prisoner in a sortie. He succeeded in escaping and in reaching his family in Navarre. For a short time he served with Gaspar de Jáuregui, known as "The Shepherd" (El Pastor), one of the minor guerrilla leaders.

But Zumalacárregui, who was noted for his grave and silent disposition and his strong religious principles, disliked the disorderly life of the guerrillas, and when regular forces were organized in the north he entered the 1st battalion of Gipuzkoa as an officer. During the remainder of the war he served in the regular army. In 1812 he was sent with dispatches to the Regency at Cádiz, and received his commission as captain. In that rank he was present at the battle of San Marcial foist of August 1813. After the restoration of Ferdinand VII he continued in the army, and is said to have made a careful study of the theory of war.

During Ferdinand VII rule

Zumalacárregui had no sympathy with the liberal principles which were spreading in Spain, and became noted as what was called a Servil or strong Royalist. He attracted no attention at headquarters, and was still a captain when the Revolution of 1820 broke out. His brother officers, whose leanings were liberal, denounced him to the revolutionary government, and asked that he might be removed. The recommendation was not acted on, but Zumalacárregui knew of it, and laid up the offence in his mind. Finding that he was suspected (probably with truth) of an intention to bring the soldiers over to the royalist side, he escaped to France.

In 1823 he returned as an officer in one of the royalist regiments which had been organized on French soil by the consent of the government. He was now known as a thoroughly trustworthy servant of the royalty, but he was too proud to be a courtier. For some years he was employed in bringing regiments which the government distrusted to order. He became lieutenant-colonel in 1825 and colonel in 1829. In 1832 he was named military governor of Ferrol. Before Ferdinand VII died in 1833, Zumalacárregui was marked out as a natural supporter of the absolutist party which favoured the king's brother, Carlos.

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