Transportation in Mongolia

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The transportation system in Mongolia consists of a network of railways, roads, waterways, and airports.



The Trans-Mongolian Railway connects the Trans-Siberian Railway from Ulan Ude in Russia to Erenhot and Beijing in China through the capital Ulan Bator. The Mongolian section of this line runs for 1110 km.[1] A spur line connects Darkhan to the copper mines of Erdenet; another spur line connects Ulaanbaatar with the coal mines of Baganuur. A separate railway line exists in the east of the country between Choibalsan and the Trans-Siberian at Borzya; however, that line is closed to passengers beyond the Mongolian town of Chuluunkhoroot.[2] For domestic transport, daily trains run from Ulaanbaatar to Darkhan, Sukhbaatar, and Erdenet, as well as Zamyn-Üüd, Choir and Sainshand. Mongolia uses the 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 56 in) (Russian gauge) track system. The total length of the system 1,810 km.[3] In 2007, rail transport carried 93% of Mongolian freight and 43% of passenger turnover (in tons*km and passenger*km, respectively).[4]


In 2007, only about 2600 km of Mongolia's road network were paved. This included the roads from Ulaanbaatar to the Russian and Chinese borders, much of the road from Ulaanbaatar to Kharkhorin and Arvaikheer and a partly parallel road from Lün to Dashinchilen, as well as the road from Darkhan to Bulgan via Erdenet. Another 3900 km are graveled or otherwise improved. The vast majority of Mongolia's official road network, some 40,000 km, are simple cross-country tracks.[5][6] Construction is underway on an east-west road (the so-called Millenium Road) that incorporates the already existing road from Ulaanbaatar to Arvaikheer, and on the extension of the Darkhan-Bulgan road beyond Bulgan.[7] Private bus and minibus companies offer service from Ulaanbaatar to most aimag centers.[8]

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