Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

related topics
{war, force, army}
{government, party, election}
{area, part, region}
{country, population, people}
{law, state, case}
{language, word, form}
{rate, high, increase}
{line, north, south}
{work, book, publish}

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers, headed by Germany, marking Russia's exit from World War I.

While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, who were tied up in fighting the Russian Civil War, and it affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania. In Poland, which was not mentioned in the treaty, its signing caused riots, protests and an end to any support for the Central Powers.[1].


Armistice negotiations

Peace negotiations began on December 22, 1917, a week after the conclusion of an armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, at Brest-Litovsk (modern Brest, Belarus, near the Polish border). The Germans were represented officially by Foreign Secretary Richard von Kühlmann, but the most important figure in shaping the peace on the German side was General Max Hoffmann, Chief of Staff of the German armies on the Eastern Front (Oberkommando-Ostfront). Austria-Hungary was represented by Foreign Minister Ottokar Czernin, and from the Ottoman Empire came Talat Pasha. The Germans demanded the "independence" of Poland and Lithuania, which they already occupied, while the Bolsheviks demanded "peace without annexations or indemnities" — in other words, a settlement under which the revolutionary government that succeeded the Russian Empire would give neither territory nor money.

Full article ▸

related documents
Second Battle of Fort Fisher
Richard Montgomery
Stab-in-the-back legend
Nanking Massacre
Prisoner of war
Great Northern War
Siege of Orléans
Balkan Wars
Jameson Raid
Roman conquest of Britain
Battle of Adwa
Otto Skorzeny
Pancho Villa
Battle of Hürtgen Forest
Battle of Cambrai (1917)
Flavius Aetius
Norman conquest of England
Qibya massacre
Anwar El Sadat
Battle of New Orleans
Operation Torch
Battle of Nieuwpoort
Battle of Xiangyang
Beer Hall Putsch
First Anglo–Dutch War
George Meade