Treblinka extermination camp

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Treblinka II (Polish pronunciation: [trɛˈblɪŋka]) was a Nazi German extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II, near the village of Treblinka. Between July 1942 and October 1943, around 850,000 people were killed there,[1] more than 800,000 of whom were Jews,[2] but including several thousand Romani people. The camp was closed after a revolt during which a few Germans were killed and a small number of prisoners escaped.

The nearby Treblinka I was a forced labour camp and administrative complex in support of the death camp. Treblinka I operated between 1941 and 1944. In this time half of the 20,000 inmates died from execution, exhaustion, or mistreatment. Treblinka I inmates worked in either the nearby gravel pit or irrigation area.[3]


Establishment of Treblinka II

Treblinka II was designed purely for the extermination of people: its killing area measuring 600 metres by 400 metres (1968 feet by 1312 feet). It was one of five secret camps of Operation Reinhard. Kulmhof (Chełmno) extermination camp was built first. It was a pilot project for the development of the next four camps; the remaining three being Belzec, Sobibor, and Majdanek.[4] In addition, killing facilities were developed in Auschwitz II-Birkenau within the already existing camp (Auschwitz I). Operation Reinhard was overseen by SS-Obergruppenführer Odilo Globocnik in occupied Poland as Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler's deputy. Unlike other Nazi concentration camps, Operation Reinhard camps reported directly to Himmler's office (the RSHA) in Berlin. Himmler kept the control of the program close to him but delegated the work to Globocnik. Operation Reinhard used the forced euthanasia program (Action T4) for site selection, construction and the training of personnel.[5]

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