Triangle wave

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A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape.

Like a square wave, the triangle wave contains only odd harmonics. However, the higher harmonics roll off much faster than in a square wave (proportional to the inverse square of the harmonic number as opposed to just the inverse).

It is possible to approximate a triangle wave with additive synthesis by adding odd harmonics of the fundamental, multiplying every (4n−1)th harmonic by −1 (or changing its phase by π), and rolling off the harmonics by the inverse square of their relative frequency to the fundamental.

This infinite Fourier series converges to the triangle wave:

Another definition of the triangle wave, with range from -1 to 1 and period 2a is:

 x(t)=\frac{2}{a} \left (t-a \left \lfloor\frac{t}{a}+\frac{1}{2} \right \rfloor \right )(-1)^\left \lfloor\frac{t}{a}-\frac{1}{2} \right \rfloor

Also, the triangle wave can be the absolute value of the sawtooth wave:

 x(t)= \left | 2 \left ( {t \over a} - \left \lfloor {t \over a} + {1 \over 2} \right \rfloor \right) \right |

The triangle wave can also be expressed as the integral of the square wave:

See also


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