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Tsar (also spelled czar, tzar, or csar[1]) is a title used to designate certain Eastern-European monarchs or supreme rulers. The first ruler to adopt the title tsar was Simeon I of Bulgaria.[2] As a system of government, it is known as Tsarism.

Czar (Bulgarian цар, Russian: About this sound царь , Ukrainian: цар, Serbian: цар/car) is a Slavic term with Bulgarian origins which is derived from Caesar, meant emperor in the European medieval sense of the term, that is, a ruler who claims the same rank as a Roman emperor, with the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope or the Ecumenical Patriarch).

Occasionally, the word could be used to designate other, non-Christian, supreme rulers. In Russia and Bulgaria the imperial connotations of the term were blurred with time and, by the 19th century, it had come to be viewed as an equivalent of King.[3][4]

"Tsar" was the official title of the supreme ruler in the following states:

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria, was the last person to bear the title Tsar.


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