A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.
Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to the British Engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854–1931), for invention of the reaction turbine and to Swedish Engineer Gustaf de Laval (1845–1913), for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery.
A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse, i.e., driven, is a compressor or pump. The axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example. Here again, both reaction and impulse are employed and again, in modern axial compressors, the degree of reaction and impulse will typically vary from the blade root to its periphery.
Claude Burdin coined the term from the Latin turbo, or vortex, during an 1828 engineering competition. Benoit Fourneyron, a student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine.
Theory of operation
A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy:
Before reaching the turbine, the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blading on the rotor. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.
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